Article 28 of the agreement allows the parties to terminate the contract following a notification of an appeal to the custodian. This notification can only take place three years after the agreement for the country comes into force. The payment is made one year after the transfer. Alternatively, the agreement provides that the withdrawal of the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, also withdraws the state from the Paris Agreement. The terms of the UNFCCC`s exit are the same as those of the Paris Agreement. There is no provision in the agreement for non-compliance. The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments.
In the run-up to the Paris climate change conference, the EU presented its planned national contribution (INDC) to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The EU`s INDC expresses the EU`s commitment to the negotiation process for a new legally binding agreement on climate change to keep global warming below 2oC. It also reaffirmed the binding target of reducing domestic greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990, as indicated by the conclusions of the European Council in October 2014. The Paris Agreement, like most other international agreements, goes through three phases before entering into force: adoption, signature and accession. Countries “deposit” their instruments with the Secretary-General designated “custodian” by the Paris Agreement. The instruments themselves are documents signed by the Head of State, which show that the government ratifies, accepts, approves or adheres to them, and commits to faithfully applying and applying its conditions. The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding.